Business Statistics, XP 2017

Where are we and what should I be doing



data web page


Looking at Data
   R Code to look at housing data
Stine and Foster:
   Numeric and Categorical: 2.2
   Tables: 3.1
   Histogram, mean, variance, standard deviation: 4.1
   Scatter plots and covariance/correlation: 6.1, 6.2

Capturing Relationships with Linear Regression
   R Code to look at housing data
Stine and Foster:
   Linear regression as a line: 6.4

Discrete Random Variables, Mean and Variance
Stine and Foster:
   Discrete Random Variables: 9.1
   Mean and Variance: 9.2
   Linear Functions of Random Variables: 9.3

Conditional Distributions and Joint Distributions
Stine and Foster:
   Joint Distributions: 10.2 (10.1 is nice too).

Continuous Distributions
Stine and Foster:
   Normal Distribution: 12.1

Modelling With IID Normal Draws
Stine and Foster:
   Normal Distribution and the Histogram: 12.2
   Standardizing (the z-score): 12.2
  do-hist.R: histogram to density for iid normal.

Linear Combinations, Covariance and Correlation
Stine and Foster:
   Covariance, Correlation, and Linear Combinations: 10.4.
   Statement of the CAPM
   On the Long Run Volatility of Stocks

Confidence Intervals and Hypothesis Tests
Stine and Foster:
    Confidence Intervals: Chapter 15.
    Hypothesis Tests: Chapter 16.

The Simple Linear Regression Model
Stine and Foster:
   Chapters 19 and 21.

The Multiple Regression Model
Stine and Foster:
    Chapters 23, 24, and 25.

    R script for 3-d plot


Homework: "Looking at Data" and "Capturing Relationships with Linear Regression"

Homework, with Solutions: "Discrete Random Variables, Mean and Variance"

Homework, with Solutions: "Conditional Distributions and Joint Distributions"

Homework, with Solutions: "Continuous Distributions"

Homework: "Modelling with IID Normal Draws"
Note that the Price-level.csv file is new and is at the bottom of the data webpage.

Homework: "Linear Combination, Covariance and Correlation"


To install R under Windows:
   Google "install R under Windows"
   click on "Download R-x.x.x for Windows"
   Click on "Run"

Some of you may also want to use rstudio which gives you more
of a gui (visual point-and-click) interface to R.
rstudio also has a lot of nice tools built into.
But, for the basic R we will do, we won't need those tools.
You may like rstudio just because it combines the editor with the command line
and makes it easier to do a few things like saving graphs.

If I google "how do I download rstudio in windows I get":
To Install RStudio:
   1. Go to and click on the "Download RStudio" button.
   2. Click on "Download RStudio Desktop."
   3. Click on the version recommended for your system, or the latest Windows version, and save the executable file.
     Run the .exe file and follow the installation instructions.

Rob's Simple R Introduction

This look like it might be a super easy way to learn R: swirl stats .
   A few simple notes on swirl

Note that if you go to it tell you how
to get started installing R, rstudio, and swirl.

The Official Introduction to R

Short Reference Card

Google Tutorial

Princeton's R Introduction


Stats in Excel Intro

Excel worksheet with Histogram of Default with chosen bins

Old Exams and Quizzes

2015, Quiz 1    solution
2015, Quiz 2    solution
2015, Quiz 3    solution

07 Final      07 Final, Solutions
12 Final      12 Final, Solutions      12 Final, Solutions, Handwritten      12 Final, Solutions, Handwritten

2016 Midterm      2016 Midterm Solutions